After Modernism: Minimalism



Who were the minimalists?

  • Donald Judd
  • Carl Andre
  • Robert Morris
  • Dan Flavin
  • Sol LeWitt

Sometimes described as minimalists:

  • Frank Stella
  • Anne Truitt
  • Tony Smith

Donald Judd, ‘Specific Objects’, Arts Yearbook 8,

According to Judd whats wrong with painting?

  • one plane hanging just in front of another plane.
  • rectangular (page 825 WRITE UP)
  • Yves Klein (WRITE UP)
  • as soon as you have one mark on a surface you have space/pictorial space.
  • doesn’t like rectangularity, oil paint and canvas and pictorial space.
  • Barnett Newman, ‘Vir Heroicus Sublimis , 1950-1
  • almost identical to what Greenburg picked out as a right painting, Judd thought made a wrong one.

What according to Judd is wrong with Noland’s painting?

  • Kenneth Noland ‘That’, 1958-9.
  • fussy, not strong enough on its own.
  • bands in between bands of colour separate it but different sizes, discrimination of taste
  • old fashioned in his eyes, missing the point of what art is, smothering it in twiddly details, if good enough don’t need the extras.
  • corners look empty, problem with rectangularity of canvas.

What are the qualities that Judd values in works like these?

  •  everything fits,  no left over space, not fussy, refined and stripped back
  • Frank Stella, ‘Six Mile Bottom’, 1960,
  • Frank Stella ‘Zambezi’, 1959
  • stand further off wall, increases sense that they’re an object with paint on.
  • Frank Stella ‘Empress of India’, 1965
  • “A painting isn’t an image” Donald Judd, specific Objects, 1965

^What is it then?

  • shape to fit the pattern.
  • sculptural manipulation of this form.

What is wrong with sculpture according to Judd?

  • Anthony Caro ‘Midday’, 1960
  • Louise Nevelson ‘The Tropical Gardens’, 1957
  • made part by part, addition, composed.

Conventional modernist sculpture (what Judd doesn’t like):

  • is made bit by bit
  • is only made from wood and metal
  • lacks colour (?)

Carl Andre, ‘Equivalent VIII’, 1966:

  • not individual in the same sense as bricks are made up together to be singular, others work is singular parts put together to make one.  ^^
  • “I don’t start with an idea or concept or a drawing or anything like that, I have to start with a set of physical realities that I order in a way which I find satisfying to me. So I have to go on and, as I said, the open end of my work is scavenging but not necessarily conscious scavenging; just walking through the streets of the city and coming upon construction sites and finding groups of material and taking them. And often I have these groups sitting on the floor and I try to figure out what is the sort of the just combination of these pieces.” – Carl Andre, 1972
  • “The main difference between the new work and earlier painting{…} is like that between one of Brunelleschi’s windows in the Badia di Fissile and the facade of the Palazzo Rucellai” – Donald Judd, Specific Objects, 1965

What does Morris say is the difference between painting and sculpture?

  • painting is illusionistic; sculpture is literal.
  • painting is optical; sculpture is tactile.

What are the unique features of sculpture?

shape, simplicity, wholeness, openness, extendibility, accessibility, publicness, repeatability, equanimity, directness, immediacy.

What is intimacy in sculpture, and why is Morris so against it?

  • an intimate sculpture carries all its space within itself
  • in an intimate sculpture the details of texture and construction become significant
  • in an intimate sculpture the quality of the finish matters
  • an intimate sculpture is private not public – it ‘tends to eliminate the viewer’

Minimalism and Phenomenology:

‘The object is but one of the terms in the newer aesthetic. It is in some way more reflexive because one’s awareness of oneself existing in the same space as the work is stronger than in previous work.’

  • “The awareness of scale is a function of the comparison made between […] one’s body size, and the object.” Robert Morries, Notes on Sculpture
  • Richard Serra ‘Backdoor Pipeline’, 2010 – different viewpoints depending where you’re standing

6 features of minimalism:

  1. Simplicity (gestalt) [instillation shot of Robert Morris show at green gallery…….]ADD IN PHOTO EXAMPLES – Donald Judd playing with reflection
  2. Scale
  3. Repetition (“the order is not rationalistic and underlying but is simply order, like that of continuity, one thing after another”) (Sol Lew
  4. Gravity (Robert Morris ‘L-Beams’, 1967/ Carl Andre ‘Equivalents, 1966/ ‘Eight Cuts’, 1967)
  5. Systems (Sol LeWitt)
  6. Colour (Dan Flavin ‘A Primary Picture’ / Piet Mondrian “composition with red, yellow and blue’)

Minimalism and Gender

  • Robert Morris ‘I-Box’, 1962.
  • does it make sense to talk about minimalist work as masculine, or even macho?
  • Robert Morris ‘Two Columns’, 1961
  • Linda Benglis, advert in ArtForum, 1974
  • Sol LeWitt ‘Schematic Drawing for Muybridge II’, 1964/70
  • David Batchelor talks about this work as a metaphor for the body. It has an inside and an outside.
  • anne Truitt ‘Primrose’ 1962 / ‘A Wall for Apricots

Features of Post-Minimalism:

  1. Gestalt
  2. Chance
  3. Formlessness
  4. Softness
  5. Drama
  6. Monumentality





Material Project: Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow, September – Part 3

By the end of Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow, September I had a large amount work I had created over the weeks. I split all of my works up into different categories depending on what they were, and aesthetically I liked this simple arrangement as the idea of collections interests me.

For my collection of silk screen prints i decided to make a simple folder out of some paper I found dating back to the 1940’s. Using this paper gave it a less commercial feel as the paper itself had been rescued from a bombed factory and put out in a skip. The paper therefore is very aged and burned around the corners. I tied it up with string to give it an intrigue.

For my nature based cyanotypes I hand-bound them into a book and attached one of my letterpresses onto the cover.

For my life-size postcards I handmade an envelope out of one of my prints and attached a letter press to its surface. I finished it by tying string around it to show a consistency throughout my work.

I did the same thing to contain my screen printed leaves and rubbings.

I arranged my larger postcard cyanotypes on a wall and below attached the actual postcards and a letterpress.


London Trip



Julia Watchel ‘Champagne Life’:

Watchel’s Champagne Life shows repeated images of Kanye West and Kim Kardashian alongside a poorly constructed sculpture of Minnie Mouse. The contrast between the bad construction that creates ‘a place of interiority’ and the ‘exteriority’ that Kim Kardashian portrays out into the public eye could be linked to my Outside/Inside project.


Maha Malluh, ‘Food for Thought “Almuallaqat 4″‘:

Malluh’s work focuses on the impact of globalisation and consumer culture within her nation.

“Within my culture or country, objects have the ability to be distributed as they are given the purpose to be allowed to travel great distances for them to communicate with other objects from different countries or cultures.”

Sohelia Sokhanvari ‘Moje Sabz’:

Sokhanvari’s taxidermy sculpture initially made me feel quite uncomfortable. by placing what appears to be a balloon or bouncy hopper beneath the horse I thought sort of put a comedy on death.


Jelena Bulajic ‘Grozda’, ‘Ljubica’, ‘Alise Lange’:

I was particularly interested in Bulajic’s incredibly accurate paintings. She chooses to paint people she encounters in everyday life whose character/look captures her interest. Her subject seems to be highly focused on elder people maybe because of the map contained within a face and the layers of skin. This is an idea I want to expose in my Outside/Inside project.


In the Saatchi gift shop I came across a kaleidoscope and took photos of people through it. I found that it distorted the image and created a really cool effect.

I like the idea of combining aspects of Bulajic’s work alongside this distorted effect created by the kaleidoscope. I want to explore mental health within my Outside/Inside project, maybe focusing on my nan’s Alzheimer’s. The fuzzy effect created by the kaleidoscope could be a way of representing her mental deterioration.



After Modernism: Fluxus

decollage- removing layers in order to create an image.


Wolf Vostell ‘Sun in your Head’ -1963.

  • deliberately irritating- humour behind it.
  • starting with TV image (familiar) taking everything away we associate with it.
    old cvs used to take a while to warm up and images would flicker- Vostell staying at ‘warm up’ stage.
  • elevating everyday- source material is popular culture (similar to pop art).
    corruption, anti-ideal representation, material degradation- dissimilar to pop art which is an ideal representation.
  • unavoidability of global political problems.

The Roots of Fluxus:

Dada (irrationality, performance, chance, iconoclasm)
Hugo Ball reciting phonetic poetry at the Cabaret Voltaire 1916
Jean Arp ‘Collage with Square Arranged According to the Laws of Chance’ 1916-17
Hannah Hoch ‘Equilibrium’.
Art V. Life
part of life and not some specialised activity separate from the process of living.
1. abandon traditional forms of art and fuse with design, to revolutionise and enrich the experience of living (constructivism, Bauhaus).
2. revolutionise the basis of everyday life and allow new forms of art to spring up and reflect these changes (futurism, surrealism).

  • John Cage ‘4’33”, 1952. (deliberately annoying, intentionally too long, noises of the audience (i.e. coughing) becomes the music the pianist isn’t playing- notice the sounds you make more).
  • Benjamin Patterson ‘Score for String Music’, 1960.
  • John Cage, performing on a toy piano, 1960.
  • John Cage ‘Score for Fontana Mix’, 1958.

The Evolution of Modern Art according to Dick Higgins:

1. Collage – (Pablo Picasso,’Still Life with Chair Caning’, 1911-12/ Robert Rauschenberg ‘Monogram’, 1955-9/ Eduardo Paolozzi, Nigel Henderson, Peter & Alison Smithson, ‘This is Tomorrow’, 1956.)
2. Combine.
3. Environment.
4. Happening
5. Event.
6. Concentration. – (point at which you arrive at Fluxus).

How does Higgins’ account compare to Greenberg’s?

George Brecht, ‘Two Vehicle Events’, 1961.

  • Higgins expands and gets bigger (opposite to Greenburg) & then it concentrates (extreme stripping away).
  • no single thing to define it (does one thing then the opposite) whereas Greenberg’s is consistent.

George Maciunas, ‘Fluxus Manifesto’

  • uses dictionary definitions to help strengthen his own definitions.
  • wanted flux to be an enima to art work.


Dick Higgins 9 features of fluxus:

1). Internationalism (Vostell, ‘Sprinkhanen’/ Ray Johnson ‘Mail Art’)
Anti-art & Iconoclasm (Henry Flint demonstrating outside MoMA, New York 1963/ Ben Vautier ‘Total Art Matchbox’ 1963/ Nam June Paik ‘Integral Piano, 1963) – violence towards pianos (maybe because they are bourgeois?).
2). Intermedia (George Maciunas, ‘Fluxboxes’ 1965-9/ Friedman, 1998: 247-8/ George Brecht ‘Bead Puzzles’ 1965/ George Brecht ‘Water Yam’ 1963-5/ Emmett Williams ‘Mediation 1’) – combination of incompatible things into one work.
Concentration/ Simplicity (Nam June Paik ‘Zen for Head’, 1962/ George Brecht ‘Exit’ 1962

3). Art & Life (Alison Knowles ‘The Identical Lunch’, 1973).
Activation of the Audience (Yoko Ono ‘Cut Piece’, 1965)- social and gender structure revealed.
4). Games, Jokes, Playing (George Maciunas ‘Fluxus Table Tennis and racquets’, 1960s/ George Maciunas ‘Spell Your Name’, 1976,65,72/ Bob Watts ‘Fluxus Clock’, c.1969/ Bob Watts ‘Chocolate Cream Pie’, 1964/ Ben Vautier ‘Fluxbox Containing God’, 1961-6).
5). Ephemerality & Invisibility (Robert Filliou ‘Crowd Project’, 1967/ John Cavanaugh ‘Blink’, 1966
6). Specificity (Ben Vautier ‘Fluxus Suicide Kit’, 1963/ Yoko Ono ‘One’, 1966)

What Dick Higgin’s doesn’t mention….

  • Mysticism (Nam June Paik ‘Zen for TV’, 1976/ Joseph Beuys ‘Chair with Fat’, 1963/ Joseph Beuys ‘We are the Revolution’, 1972/ Joseph Beuys ‘Untitled’, 1985).
  • Music (Charlotte Moorman & Nam June Paik/ George Brecht ‘Drip Music’, 1963/ Robert Filliou ‘Telepathic Music’, 1976-8).
  • Meaning & Meaninglessness (Ray Johnson ‘Nothing’, 1943-93/ Alison Knowles ‘A House of Dust’, 1967).
  • Boredom.
  • Politics (Wolf Vostell ‘B52’, 1968/ George Maciunas ‘Fluxus Manifesto’, 1963/ Joseph Beuys ‘Overcome Party Dictatorship Now’, poster, 1970-72).


Material Project: Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow, September – Part 2

To build layers I created a second screen with the fill of the leaf petals. I printed these individually in orange and then combined it with my other screen prints. I used orange to compliment the blue. I again experimented by printing on different surfaces.

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Handmade paper and experimentation with printing onto its surface: It’s uneven surface meant that the print was patchy.

I took rubbings of the leaves I collected over the project span and was able to capture the surface details I couldn’t capture in the cyanotypes.

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Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow, September letterpress:


I based my project on nature and nature based objects I collected over the project. I made a miniature book of part of this collection.

Finally I created some more postcard cyanotypes and screen printed in orange onto their surface to tie my work together. I also made the postcard cyanotypes in life-size and stuck old stamps I collected onto them. The effect created was pretty cool.

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After Modernism: Pop Art & Consumerism


What kind of object is a work of art?

  • Christo Pousette ‘Packed Supermarket Cart’, 1963 – showed resemblances to a homeless person’s trolley/ no longer useable as trolley/ looks mysterious & builds an intrigue (want to know what’s beneath the wrapping).
  • Sylvie Fleury ‘Ela 75/K Easy, Breezy, Beautiful No.6’, 2000 – glamorous/ no longer just a supermarket trolley/ dipped in gold, lights to emphasise it/ don’t normally see a shopping trolley as a glamorous object.
  • elevating VS lowering associations with a shopping trolley.


The Taste Pyramid:

  • hierarchy- high art & low art.
  • Alloway suggested that critically acclaimed arts are at the top and commercial art is at the bottom.
  • the art at the top of the pyramid is more exclusive with not much around whereas art at the bottom of the pyramid are accessible to most and so are not as special.
  • implication is that it separates are too much.
  • I don’t agree with Alloway. I think art is about individuality- we all have our own taste pyramids so it is impossible to categorise.
  • too much range in art to categorise a hierarchy now.
  • elitist.
  • is JK Rowling as good as Shakespeare?
  • how important is monetary value in determining importance/position?


Andy Warhol ‘192 One Dollar Bills’, 1962.

  • how much is a work of art worth?
  • Warhol’s piece was made of 192 dollar bills so surely it should be worth $192- sold for $43,800,000.
  • shows physical value can be completely different to artistic value.

Andy Warhol ‘Brillo Box’, 1964.

  • actual Brillo box was designed by James Harvey, a struggling Abstract Expressionist who did it to earn an extra bit of money.
  • as soon as Warhol made his Brillo boxes they’re worth way more in the art world.
  • Harvey tried to sue Warhol.
  • Brillo boxes were still being made after Warhol died and were still being sold for major money.

Richard Long ‘A Smell of Sulphur in the Wind’, 1944

  • Bill Drummond bought it for £20,000 – began to get bored/annoyed with the work and wanted to know if it was really worth the price he bought it for so cut it up into 20,000 pieces and began to sell them for £1 each.
  • if he sells them all then he would know the work was worth £20,000.

Ibrahim Mahama ‘Out of Bounds’

  • made out of Ghana cocoa sacks- sold for £10,000 (physically is it really worth that much?)
  • made a deal with a gallery to sell individual pieces authenticated as Mahama pieces – however he de-authenticated individual works & now gallery is suing him for £4.5 million.


Food (Consumption):

  • Wayne Thiebaud ‘Refrigerator Pies’, 1962- no human trace/ colour gives the pies an aura/ all perfectly shaped (pristine)/ extending indefinitely as you can’t see the end- indicates mass production.
  • Roy Lichtenstein ‘Hot Dog’.
  • Andy Warhol ‘Soup Cans’, 1961-2– democratic levelling, when a homeless man drinks a coke & the president drinks a coke its the same thing, wealth plays no role.
  • Wolf Vostell ‘Coca Cola’, 1961– takes you towards life on the street/ how things get damaged, repressive corporate imagery.
  • Claes Oldenburg ‘Pastry Case’/’Two Cheeseburgers’,1962/’7-Up Sign’,1961.
  • Bianchi Gallery ‘The American Supermarket’, 1964.
  • sold pieces cheap.
  • signed Campbell soup by Andy Warhol for $18.


  • Richard Hamilton ‘Just what was it that made yesterday’s homes so different, so appealing?’, 2004.
  • figures emphasised in black & white.
  • meat next to a woman.

Tom Wassermann ‘Landscape No.4’, 1965


James Rosenquist ‘I Love You with my Ford’, 1961.

  • makes you think of a car crash.

Andy Warhol ‘Ambulance Disaster’

  • “when you repeat something the effect goes away”.


‘Green Car Crash’, 1963

  • readable to abstract.
  • image obliterating itself (reflective of subject matter).

Richard Hamilton ‘Hommage a Chrysler Corp’, 1957

  • ghost of a woman.
  • last thing to fade are the most sexualised (lips and breast).


Material Project: Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow, September – Part 1

To begin my visual journal, I collected leaves I found on my walk into uni as to document the Autumn, and found some vintage postcards I had previously collected at home. I used both of these to create cyanotypes. I really liked the effect created in the cyanotypes as they developed into a deep blue and the areas where the leaves and text were, were left white.

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I also did some screen printing, drawing a delicate floral pattern and transferring it onto my screen. I printed these in a similar blue colour to link to my cyanotypes. The prints I created came of out really well, some came out with a heavy saturation of ink and others came out lighter. I also experimented by printing onto different surfaces including thick card, transfer paper and newspaper.

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Material Project: Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow, September – Research

This week I was introduced to Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow, September which is focused around the idea of keeping a daily visual record of my experiences. We started by looking at the work of several artists who kept diaries or documented their life:

Dieter Roth Diaries

On Kawara

  • Recording of the given date that the painting was made.
  • Today Series.
  • January 4th 1966- January 12th 2013.
  • Produced to a very strict set of rules- if it’s not finished in a day it’s destroyed.
  • 8 possible dimensions, 3 possible colours (grey, red, or blue).
  • Colours hand mixed, so no colour is every exactly the same.
  • Language he used for the date would change based on the city or town he was in at the time.
  • Sometimes paired with newspaper clippings from the daily press.
  • When you line them all up it creates the impression of a narrative.

Mary Kelly

  • “Post-Partum Document”.
  • 6 year exploration of mother-child relationship.
  • Moves between the voice of the mother, child and analytic observer.
  • Documented the life of her baby.
  • Even included stained nappy liners.
  • 139 individual parts.
  • Mother’s memorabilia.

Tracey Emin

  • “My Bed”
  • Had a breakdown and spent 4 days in bed- documentation.
  • Saw the mess and decay of her life.
  • Empty vodka bottles, cigarette boxes, dirty panties, bed is unmade.
  • When she installs the bed she finds is sad and depressing as she is going into a time capsule of her past.



Collage Workshop

I found this workshop key in the development of my work as it introduced me to Jordan Clarke, an artist that had great influence on my subject piece ‘Alzheimer’s Series 1’ in my use of collage to distort identity. Additionally, I was able to learn new skills, such as using the app Procreate to create digital collages by sourcing images off of the internet. This collage workshop also taught me to be resourceful in materials and encouraged me to collect scraps that could be later used in work. This ended up influencing me profoundly as I saved every single pill packet from my roaccutane course thinking that they could end up having a future use for something and they ended up being heavily incorporated into one of my final pieces.

Working with Traditional Collage: Part 1

We began this workshop by looking at different collage artists. This helped me create an understanding of the different techniques in collage I could use.

What I particularly liked about this workshop was how I had less control in my collage’s outcomes as I was limited to the images I found in the magazines. This meant I had no plan of what I was going to create beforehand, I simply cut images out I liked and took inspiration off of them as a group to create a theme in my final collages.

My first collage focused around the change in marketing and beauty in the past compared to now. I assembled old advertising images from vintage magazines as well as current beauty trends and fashion marketing from the present day. However, I found that my final collage looked more like a mood board than a collage as the images were so small compared to the size of the paper. I decided to cut my original collage up into 3 smaller collages.

I then created 3 smaller collages the same size as a playing card. One being fully drawn, the second being fully collage and the final being part collage part drawing. I found it fun to experiment with these different combinations and techniques for creating collage.


My final collage is a combination of different images I sourced that created quite a contrast. I used a combination of a 1930’s hollywood actress with what looks like a ski-fi comic book page. I also used techniques like cutting back the surface to highlight certain areas and cut dots out and stuck them on the top creating a geometric pattern.


Traditional Collage into Digital Collage: Part 2

The second part of the collage workshop we created digital collages using Procreate on iPads. Instead of sourcing images from magazines we used the internet which meant we had unlimited access to whatever images we wanted.

I decided to create a collage focusing around the contrast between Pop culture and world issues. I included pictures of current world issues including ISIS bombings and compared it to what paparazzi are focusing on in celebrity culture. I also included famous figures within my collage. I took the famous image of the Syrian boy in the back of the ambulance and compared it to Kim Kardashian’s Paper shoot where she tried to ‘break the internet’. Both images are iconic but for completely different reasons. I layered these different images not op of each other, played with the opacity so you could see other images coming through from behind and used the rubber tool to create a sense of reality.



After Modernism: Abstract Expressionism and Clement Greenburg

‘Portrait of V.I. Lenin in cap, in the style of Jackson Pollock III, 1980’

  • hidden portrait – wouldn’t be able to recognise if it wasn’t for the title.
  • looked like an abstract painting with paint splattered onto surface, only when the portrait is put next to the painting can you see the image.

Vladimir Petrov, Turrsunoi Akhunova, ‘The First Woman Uzbek Tractor Driver Teaching a Friend’, 1955.
Jackson Pollock, ‘Autumn Rhythm’, 1950.


  • Vladimir Petrov- painting depicts women in the soviet union entering new roles in society/ the painting is happy, collaborative and populist art.
  • Jackson Pollock- comes off slightly pretentious? Shows individual freedom, a mark of individualism/freedom- a great part of American capitalism.

Causes of Abstract Expressionism:

  • the desire to claim cultural leadership.
  • official sponsorship (art as a weapon of the Cold War).
  • desire to synthesise the main trends of European art including Cubism, Surrealism & Emigres.


  • meant politics (engagement with the outside world)
  • fragmentation of form.
  • Pablo Picasso ‘Guernica’, 1937 – prominent Cubist painting/ painted to raise money for Guernica that had been bombed by the nazis using a technique that they then went on to use around Europe/ hard to grasp whole forms immediately.



Pablo Picasso ‘Two Seated Women’, 1938

  • line and plane- figures heavily disguised in lines.
  • play off sense of volume & depth against sense of pattern and flatness.
  • tried to work out body parts but the lines made it hard to tell.
  • perspective alters.


Flatness VS Volume:
Pablo Picasso ‘La Femme Fleur’, 1946


  • Surrealism meant automatism (bypassing the conscious mind into the unconscious) to painters in NY in the 1940’s.
  • Andre Masson ‘Automatic Drawing’, 1924 (unconscious drawing)- hidden imagery/ can see hands in the drawing.
  • Andre Masson ‘The Kill’, 1944 – extremely hidden (everyone sees something different)/ looks like a random pattern.
  • Andre Masson ‘Pasiphae’, 1937
  • Jackson Pollock ‘Pasiphae’, 1943 (bull leaping, Minean culture).


  • Hans Hoffmann ‘Afterglow’, 1938.
  • ‘The Wind’, 1942 – 1st artist to drip paint.


4 Features of Abstract Expressionism:

  • gesture- individuality & freedom (Pollock).
  • Pollock painted from the hips.
  • the Ideogram- something between language & picture.
  • Adolf Gotlieb- stereotypically feminine (figure & colour palette)/ broken up body, shapes that resemble female genitals – internal bodily experience.
  • Bradley Walker Tomlin ‘Number 20’, 1949– numbers/letters/shapes- possible to read it?
  • Pierre Alechinsky ‘Les Hautes Herbes’, 1951.
  • Henri Michaux ‘Emerging Figures’, 1950– following a theme through (simple TO complex)- some look evolutionary.


Size & Scale:

  • Newman, Matisse, Pollock.
  • Barnett Newman ‘Vir Heroicus Sublimis’, 1950-51– wants people to stand close to it so it occupies the viewer’s peripheral vision.
  • the ‘all-over’ effect.
  • Jackson Pollock ‘Full Fatham Five’, 1947- objects embedded into painting, tantalises viewer.
  • Herbert Plobeger ‘Debris’, 1945-6.

Greenberg thinks a painting should be 2D and be rectangular in shape.